Top Ten Research Updates to Fight Against Coronavirus COVID-19

Coronavirus Research Update

Here, we discussed the top ten up to date research findings of coronavirus disease. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the lives across the world in unprecedented ways. In the face of this catastrophic consequences great efforts have been made to develop preventive and therapeutic interventions against SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.

Vaccines has the potential to provide long-term protection against the virus, though it is estimated that it could take at least a year before a vaccine against COVID-19 is approved in a formal way.  However, there are many other ways we can stop this invasion. Here, we discussed the key research findings of  SAS-CoV-2.  The top ten COVID-19 research updates are as follows: 

Coronavirus Research Update

Coronavirus research updates

1. Entry of the Virus into the Target Cell begins after 30 Minutes

One feature of coronavirus is that in cell culture, entry only begins after a lag time of 30 minutes, suggesting that substantial endosomal maturation is necessary in the endosomal route of entry and this 30 minutes can be used for protection.

2. Virus Concentration were Maximum in Throat Area

A detailed analysis of nine mild cases of COVID-19 in Germany showed, live replicating SARS-CoV-2 was found in the throatThe virus populations are consistently detected in throat and the lung samples. The viral RNA concentrations is maximum in the upper respiratory tract, suggesting more focused researches are necessary for the protection of this area.

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3. Peak Infection is on the 4th and 5th Day

Research shows that the peak concentration of the viruses are on the 4th day. It is about  7.11 × 108 RNA copies per throat swab.  The most common symptoms are fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. For details see Who Guidelines. The SARS-CoV-2 virus follows a typical six step life cycle.

Studies published in the Lancet, found that the mean viral load (SARS-CoV-2) of severe cases was around 60 times higher than that of mild cases, suggesting that higher viral loads might be associated with severe clinical outcomes. The patients with severe COVID-19 tend to have a high viral load and a long virus-shedding period.

5. Seroconversion Occurs on the 7th Day

Seroconversion in 50% of patients occurred by day 7, and in all by day 14. In immunology, seroconversion is the time period during which a specific antibody develops and becomes detectable in the blood. After seroconversion has occurred, the disease can be detected in blood tests for the antibody. 

6. COVID 19 Viruses are Sensitive to Temperature

A study published in the Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2020) observed that, coronaviruses are sensitive to heat and ultraviolet rays. They can be stored for several years at −80 °C and inactivated at 56 °C for 30 min (the most commonly used method to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 in the laboratory). In addition, 75% ethanol, peracetic acid, and chlorine-containing disinfectants can effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2. 

7. Coronaviruses are More Stable on Plastic than on Copper and Cardboard.

One study published in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests that SARS-CoV-2 was more stable on plastic and stainless steel than on copper and cardboard. The COVID-19 virus can remain viable and infectious in aerosols for hours, 4 hours on copper, 24 hours on cardboard, 48 hours on stainless steel and 72 hours on plastic. The lifespan of the virus on a surface depends on various factors like surrounding temperature, humidity, and type of surface. 

8. Viral Transmission Depends More on Viral Load not Just Symptoms

Researchers observed that the high viral load on presentation suggests that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted easily, even when symptoms are relatively mild. Salivary gland ducts were early targets. This finding could account for the efficient person-to-person transmission noted in community and health-care settings. 

The more viral RNA detected in a person’s body, the more they create viral droplets when coughing or sneezing. The researchers say that the high levels of SARS-CoV-2 particles detected at the onset of symptoms suggest that the virus can be transmitted easily between people, even when symptoms are relatively mild. 

Life cycle of Coronavirus COVID-19  SARS-COV-2

9. Two-phase immune responses are required

Initial positive immune response is most critical. During the incubation and non-severe stages, a specific adaptive immune response is required to eliminate the virus and to preclude disease progression to severe stages. When the protective immune response is impaired, virus will propagate and massive destruction of the affected tissues will occur, especially in organs that have high ACE2 expression, such as intestine and kidney.

In the severe stage – once severe lung damage occurs, efforts should be made to suppress inflammation and to manage the symptoms.

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10. Face Mask can Reduce the Spread of Virus

Study reveals that surgical face masks effectively block the spread of seasonal coronaviruses in respiratory droplets, suggesting that masks could prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

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  1. WHO. Coronavirus disease (accessed 9th April, 2020).
  2. Xia, S., Liu, M., Wang, C. et al. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 (previously 2019-nCoV) infection by a highly potent pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor targeting its spike protein that harbors a high capacity to mediate membrane fusion. Nature Cell Res 30, 343–355 (2020).
  3. Wölfel, R. et al. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature (2020)
  4. Myndi G. Holbrook, et al. Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1, The New England Journal of Medicine, March 17, 2020, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973

  5. Yang, P., Wang, X. COVID-19: a new challenge for human beings. Cell Mol Immunol (2020).
  6. Wang D, Hu B, et al., Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020; (published online Feb 7, 2020) DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.1585

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Ray, Amit. "Top Ten Research Updates to Fight Against Coronavirus COVID-19." Accessed 13-Jul-2024